Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse Technologies for Sustainable Water Resources: Jordan as a Case Study
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Civil Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Jordan
Civil Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Huson University College, Jordan
Faculty of Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
Faculty of Engineering, Khawarizmi University Technical College, Jordan
Submission date: 2024-06-02
Final revision date: 2024-06-19
Acceptance date: 2024-06-19
Online publication date: 2024-06-20
Publication date: 2024-06-20
Corresponding author

Civil Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Amman, Jordan
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2024;34(2):177-192
Due to the escalating water demands, in addition to sever water shortage, Jordan has done the most, making reuse a priority in their national water resources strategy. The waste stabilization ponds (WSP) represent the most economical method for wastewater treatment. For these reasons, many treatment plants were built in Jordan Since 1984 where more than 78% of all wastewater discharges had been treated in WSP. Recently, most of these plants were changed to mechanical technologies. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of the existing wastewater treatment technologies and to determine the necessity of modified systems. In addition, 80 samples of wastewater collected from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) inlet and outlet, analysed for BOD, COD, TSS, and NH4 parameters. Ramtha WWTP was chosen a case study to assess the environmental impact of using modern technologies. Results indicated that the existing treatment plants are facing over hydraulic and organic loads, which cause significant deterioration in their efficiencies. Most of the plants are incapable to achieve the required standards for water reuse. The modern technologies provided high removal efficiencies, better control of odours, operation flexibility, and lower environmental load. Modern treatment technologies can create additional water resources, which is very important parameter in Jordan's water budget. Adequate design, using modern treatment technologies, enacting stricter regulations and better management of urban and rural waste will create more than 200 million cubic meter per year of treated water, which can be reused for irrigation.
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