Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland
More details
Hide details
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Online publication date: 2017-02-07
Publication date: 2016-12-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2016;23(4):51–60
The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.
Decree by Ministry of Environment on the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface (Item 1395, Dated 1 Sept., 2016).
Ettler V., Mihaljevic M.: Distribution of trace elements in several ombrotrophic peatbogs in the Bohemians Massif. Rost. Vyr.. 45, 7 (1999) 331-334.
Glina B., Gajewski P., Kaczmarek Z., Owczarzak W., Rybczyński P.: Current state of peatland soils as an effect of long-term drainage – preliminary results of peatland ecosystems investigation in the Grójecka Valley (central Poland). Soil Science Annual, 67, 1 (2016) 1-7.
Glina B., Bogacz A., Gulyás M., Zawieja B., Gajewski P., Kaczmarek Z.: The effect of long-term forestry drainage on the current state of peatland soils: A case study from the Central Sudetes (SW Poland), Mires and Peat, 18, 21 (2016) 1-11.
Glina B., Bogacz A.: Concentrations and pools of trace elements in organic soils in the Izera Mountains, Journal of Elementology, 18, 2 (2013) 199-209.
Gerdol R., Bragazza L.: Effects of altitude on element accumulation in alpine moss. Chemosphere, 64 (2006) 810–816.
Heiri O., Lotter A. F., Lemcke G.: Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results, Journal of Paleolimnology, 25 (2001) 101–110.
Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions, edit FJ. Stevenson, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York 1994.
IUSS Working Group WRB.: World reference base for soil resources. International Soil Classification System for Naming Soil and Creating Legends for Soil Maps, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2015.
Kabala C., Musztyfaga E., Gałka B., Labuńska D., Mańczyńska P.: Conversion of soil pH 1:2.5 KCl and 1:2.5 H2O to 1:5 H2O – conclusions for soil management, environmental monitoring and international soil databases, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25 (2016) 647-653.
Kabata-Pendias A., Kabata-Pendias H.: Bogeochemia pierwiastków śladowych, Warszawa, Wyd PWN 1999.
Kalisz B., Łachacz A., Głażewski R.: Effects of peat drainage on labile organic carbon and water repellency in NE Poland. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 39 (2015) 20-27.
Kleb B., Benkovics L., Török Á., Dömsödi J.: Peat exploration for medical use. Periodic Polytechnica ser. Civil Engineering, 43, 2 (1999) 233-242.
Kołodziejczyk K.: Plant macroremains analysis as the basis for assessing degradation of peatlands used in agriculture. PhD thesis, Wrocław Univeristy of Life Sciences (2013) pp. 237.
Krumins J., Kuske E., Klavins M.: Major and trace element accumulation in fen peat from Elki and Viki mires in Western Latvia. Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University, Material Science and Applied Chemistry, 24 (2011) 71-81.
Lynn W.C., McKinzie W.E., Grossmann R.B.: Field laboratory test for characterization of Histosols. in: Histosols: Their Characteristic and Use, edit Stelly M, SSSA Spec. Pub, 6 Medison 1974, 10-20.
Margielewski W.: Torfowiska osuwiskowe polskich Karpat fliszowych jako czuły indykator zmian paleośrodowiska późnego glacjału i holocenu, Studia Limnologica et Telmatologica, 8, 1 (2014) 37-55.
Polish Soil Classification (Systematyka gleb Polski), Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual, 62, 3 (2011) 1–193 (in Polish with English abstract).
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.
Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on Cosmetics Products.
Schimelpfenig D. W., Cooper D. J., Chimner R. A.: Effectiveness of Ditch Blockage for Restoring Hydrologic and Soil Processes in Mountian Peatlands, Restoration Ecology, 22, 2 (2014) 257-265.
Sjörs H., Gunnarson U.: Calcium and pH in north and central Swedish mires water, Journal of Ecology, 90 (2002) 650 – 657.
Strategy for Responsible Peatlands Management. edit. D. Clarke, J. Riley, International Peat Society. Jyväskylä, Finland 2010.
Sokołowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzyńska D.: Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on acid–base properties of organic compounds in mucks, Geoderma, 127, (2005) 80–90.
Tołpa S.: The history of the discovery and development of investigation on Tołpa Torf preparation. in: Preclinical investigation of Tołpa Torf Preparation (TPP) Wrocław, edit A. Danysz, Torf Corporation (1992).