Aggregate Type Influence on Microstructural Behavior of Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperature
More details
Hide details
Department of Civil Engineering, Mohammed El-Bachir Ibrahimi University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria
Laboratory of Materials and durability of constructions(lMdc), university Mentouri of Constantine, Algeria
L2MGC, Cergy-Pontoise University, F95000 Cergy-Pontoise, Paris, France
Online publication date: 2022-04-05
Publication date: 2022-03-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2022;32(1):19–42
Exposure of concrete to high temperatures affects its mechanical properties by reducing the compressive strength, bending… etc. Factors reducing these properties have been focused on by several studies over the years, producing conflicting results. This article interested an important factor, that is the type of aggregates. For this, an experimental study on the behavior of concrete based on different types of aggregates: calcareous, siliceous and silico-calcareous subjected to high temperatures. In addition, the particle size distribution of the aggregates was chosen to be almost identical so that the latter does not affect the behavior of the concrete. Aggregates and concrete samples were subjected to a heating/cooling cycle of 300, 600 and 800 °C at a speed of 1 °C/ min. The mechanical and physical properties of concrete before and after exposure to high temperatures were studied. In addition, a microstructural study using a scanning electron microscope and a mercury porosimeter was performed. Thus, a comparative study between various researches on the mechanical properties of concrete exposed to high temperatures containing different types of aggregates was carried out. The compressive strength test results showed that the concrete based on siliceous aggregates (C-S) has better mechanical performance up to 300 ° C. However, above 300°C, the compressive strength decreases faster compared to calcareous-based concrete (C-C). According to the mercury porosimeter test, at 600 ° C, C-SC and C-S concretes have the highest number of pores compared to C-C concretes. The microstructure of concrete at high temperatures was influenced mainly by the aggregate’s types and the paste-aggregate transition zone. This study reinforces the importance of standardizing test procedures related to the properties of concrete in a fire situation so that all the results obtained are reproducible and applicable in other research.
Bangi, MR and Horiguchi, T 2012. Effect of fibre type and geometry on maximum pore pressures in fibre-reinforced high strength concrete at elevated temperatures. Cement and Concrete Research 42 (2), 459-466.
Niknezhad, D, Bonnet, S, Leklou, N and Amiri, O 2019. Effect of thermal damage on mechanical behavior and transport properties of self-compacting concrete incorporating polypropylene fibers. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 33 (23), 2535-2566.
Hachemi, S and Ounis, A 2015. Performance of concrete containing crushed brick aggregate exposed to different fire temperatures. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 19 (7), 805-824.
Ozawa, M and Morimoto, H 2014. Effects of various fibres on hightemperature spalling in high-performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials (71), 83-92.
Bangi, MR and Horiguchi, T 2011. Pore pressure development in hybrid fibrereinforced high strength concrete at elevated temperatures. Cement and Concrete Research 41 (11), 1150-1156.
Kizilkanat, AB, Yüzer, N and Kabay, N 2013. Thermo-physical properties of concrete exposed to high temperature. Construction and Building Materials 45), 157-161.
Hager, I 2013. Behaviour of cement concrete at high temperature, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Technical Sciences 61 (1), 145-154.
Fares, H, Noumowe, A and Remond, S 2009. Self-consolidating concrete subjected to high temperature: mechanical and physicochemical properties, Cement and Concrete Research 39 (12), 1230-1238.
Xing, Z, Beaucour, A-L, Hebert, R, Noumowe, A and Ledesert, B 2011. Influence of the nature of aggregates on the behaviour of concrete subjected to elevated temperature. Cement and concrete research 41 (4), 392-402.
Robert, F and Colina, H 2009. The influence of aggregates on the mechanical characteristics of concrete exposed to fire. Magazine of concrete research 61 (5), 311-321.
Ma, Q, Guo, R, Zhao, Z, Lin, Z and He, K 2015. Mechanical properties of concrete at high temperature—A review. Construction and Building Materials 93), 371-383.
Annerel, E and Taerwe, L 2009. Revealing the temperature history in concrete after fire exposure by microscopic analysis. Cement and Concrete Research 39 (12), 1239-1249.
Mindeguia, J-C, Pimienta, P, Carré, H and La Borderie, C 2012. On the influence of aggregate nature on concrete behaviour at high temperature. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering 16 (2), 236-253.
Masood, A, Shariq, M, Alam, MM, Ahmad, T and Beg, A 2018. Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Residual Properties of Quartzite, Granite and Basalt Aggregate Concrete. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. A 99 (3), 485-494.
Missemer, L, Ouedraogo, E, Malecot, Y, Clergue, C and Rogat, D 2019. Fire spalling of ultra-high performance concrete: From a global analysis to microstructure investigations. Cement and Concrete Research 115, 207-219.
Zhao, D, Zhao, R, Jia, P and Liu, H 2019. Microstructure and fatigue performance of high strength concrete under compression after exposure to elevated temperatures. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering), 1-25.
Sollero, M, Junior, AM and Costa, C 2021. Residual mechanical strength of concrete exposed to high temperatures–international standardization and influence of coarse aggregates. Construction and Building Materials 287, 122843.
Chen, X, Shi, D and Guo, S 2020. Experimental Study on Damage Evaluation, Pore Structure and Impact Tensile Behavior of 10-Year-Old Concrete Cores After Exposure to High Temperatures. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials 14, 1-17.
NF-EN1097-3, Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 3: Determination of loose bulk density and voids. 1998.
Festa, J and Dreux, G 1998. Nouveau guide du béton et ses constituants, 8e éd, Eyrolles, Éd., Paris).
Tolentino, E, Lameiras, FS, Gomes, AM, Silva, CA and Vasconcelos, WL 2002. Effects of high temperature on the residual performance of Portland cement concretes. Materials research 5 (3), 301-307.
Rashad, AM 2015. Potential use of silica fume coupled with slag in HVFA concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 27 (11), 04015019.
Reddy, DH and Ramaswamy, A 2017. Influence of mineral admixtures and aggregates on properties of different concretes under high temperature conditions I: Experimental study. Journal of Building Engineering 14, 103-114.
Xing, Z, Hébert, R, Beaucour, A-L, Ledésert, B and Noumowé, A 2014. Influence of chemical and mineralogical composition of concrete aggregates on their behaviour at elevated temperature. Materials and structures 47 (11), 1921-1940.
Heap, M, Lavallée, Y, Laumann, A, Hess, K-U, Meredith, P, Dingwell, DB, Huismann, S and Weise, F 2013. The influence of thermal-stressing (up to 1000 C) on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of siliceousaggregate, high-strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials 42, 248-265.
Lee, TG, Kim, GY, Kim, YS and Park, GY 2011. Mechanical properties of concrete with aggregate type at elevated temperature. in Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publ.
Kodur, V and Mcgrath, R 2003. Fire endurance of high strength concrete columns. Fire technology 39 (1), 73-87.
Hager, I, Tracz, T, Śliwiński, J and Krzemień, K 2016. The influence of aggregate type on the physical and mechanical properties of high-performance concrete subjected to high temperature. Fire and materials 40 (5), 668-682.
Fares, H, Remond, S, Noumowe, A and Cousture, A 2010. High temperature behaviour of self-consolidating concrete: microstructure and physicochemical properties. Cement and Concrete Research 40 (3), 488-496.
Behnood, A and Ghandehari, M 2009. Comparison of compressive and splitting tensile strength of high-strength concrete with and without polypropylene fibers heated to high temperatures. Fire Safety Journal 44 (8), 1015-1022.
Ghandehari, M, Behnood, A and Khanzadi, M 2010. Residual mechanical properties of high-strength concretes after exposure to elevated temperatures. Journal of materials in Civil Engineering 22 (1), 59-64.
Kalifa, P, Menneteau, F-D and Quenard, D 2000. Spalling and pore pressure in HPC at high temperatures. Cement and concrete research 30 (12), 1915-1927.
Onundi, LO, Oumarou, MB and Alkali, AM 2019. Effects of Fire on the Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 7 (1), 1-12.
Razafinjato, RN, Beaucour, A-L, Hebert, RL, Ledesert, B, Bodet, R and Noumowe, A 2016. High temperature behaviour of a wide petrographic range of siliceous and calcareous aggregates for concretes. Construction and Building Materials 123, 261-273.
Bei, S and Zhixiang, L 2016. Investigation on spalling resistance of ultra-highstrength concrete under rapid heating and rapid cooling. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 4, 146-153.
Khoury, GA 2000. Effect of fire on concrete and concrete structures. Progress in structural engineering and materials 2 (4), 429-447.
Mindeguia, J-C 2009. Contribution expérimentale à la compréhension des risques d’instabilité thermique des bétons. Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour.
De Larrard, F and Sedran, T 2002. Mixture-proportioning of highperformance concrete, Cement and concrete research 32 (11), 1699-1704.
Piasta, J, Sawicz, Z and Rudzinski, L 1984. Changes in the structure of hardened cement paste due to high temperature. Matériaux et Construction 17 (4), 291-296.