Undrained Shear and Pore Space Characteristics of Treated Loose Sands with Lime-Activated Zeolite in Saturated Settings
More details
Hide details
State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Iran
Online publication date: 2020-08-20
Publication date: 2020-06-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2020;30(2):105–132
This research investigates the mechanical behavior of artificially cemented sandy soils formed by lime alkali activation of natural zeolite under saturation settings. In order to verify the bar capability of cemented sands with this new method, an analysis of the undrained shear strength of the soil with pore water pressure ratio measurements was performed from the interpretation of the results of unconfined compression tests. The effect of zeolite-lime blend on treated sands was also visualized by scanning electron microscopy. For the studied soils, it was concluded from the unconfined compression stress values that the soil is fully capable of withstanding compressions due to overburden pressure. Additionally, this study seeks to evaluate the effect of the void ratio on the pore space and undrained shear strength. The results showed that pore water B-ratio increases with the decrease of the void ratio. Moreover, with the increase of zeolite content, confining pressure, and curing age, the peak failure strength increases. The results indicated a promising consistency of treated samples with lime and zeolite under various values of undrained shearing and B-ratios, making this method an ideal treatment for loose sand deposits.
Ferreti, G, Dario, G, Faccini, B and Coltorti, M 2018. Mitigation of sodium risk in a sandy agricultural soil by the use of natural zeolites. Environmental monitoring and assessment 190(11), 646.
Wen, J, Peng, Z, Liu, Y, Fang, Y, Zeng, G and Zhang, S 2018. A case study of evaluating zeolite, CaCO 3, and MnO 2 for Cd-contaminated sediment reuse in soil. Journal of soils and sediments 18, 323-332.
Kanchikeri, MM, Mukhopadhyay, R, Paul, R, Datta, S, Kumararaja, P and Sarkar, B 2019. Clay minerals and zeolites for environmentally sustainable agriculture. In Modified Clay and Zeolite Nanocomposite Materials 1, 309-329.
Idriss, IM and Boulanger, RW 2008. Soil liquefaction during earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Jamhiri, B and Parsaeimaram, M 2019. Study on Integrated Liquefaction Hazard Mapping Developed by SPT, CPT, Downhole and LPI Index. Geological Behavior (GBR) 3(2), 6-14.
Skempton, AW 1954. The Pore Pressure Coefficients A and B. Geotechniques 4(4), 143–147.
Shon, C and Young-Su K 2013. Evaluation of West Texas natural zeolite as an alternative of ASTM Class F fly ash. Construction and Building Materials 47, 389-396.
Seraj, R, Ferron, D and Juenger, M 2016. Calcining natural zeolites to improve their effect on cementitious mixture workability. Cement and Concrete Research 85, 102-110.
MolaAbasi, H, Saberian, M and Li, J 2019. Prediction of compressive and tensile strengths of zeolite-cemented sand using porosity and composition. Construction and Building Materials 202, 784-795.
MolaAbasi, H, Kordtabar, B and Kordnaeij, A 2017. Parameters controlling the strength of zeolite–cement–sand mixture. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 11(1), 72-79.
Yen Thi, T, Lee, J, Kumar, P, Kim, K and Sang Soo Lee 2018. Natural zeolite and its application in concrete composite production. Composites Part B: Engineering 165, 354-364.
Elettra, P, Medri, V, Amari, S, Manaud, J, Benito, P, Vaccari, A and Landi, E 2018. Zeolite-geopolymer composite materials: Production and characterization. Journal of cleaner production 171, 76-84.
Chiara, G, Mobili, QL, Yu, HJ, Brouwers, H, Ruello, ML and Tittarelli, F 2019. Properties of multifunctional lightweight mortars containing zeolite and natural fibers. Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials 8(4), 214-227.
Xu, W, Chen, J, Wei, J, Zhang, B, Yuan, X, Xu, P, Yu, Q and Ren, R 2019. Evaluation of inherent factors on flowability, cohesiveness and strength of cementitious mortar in the presence of zeolite powder. Construction and Building Materials 214, 61-73.
Jamhiri, B 2020. Evaluation of pozzolan-lime stabilization on the physical properties of fine sandy engineering fills. Konya Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 8(1), 80-90.
Bentz, P, Ferraris, CF, Galler, M, Hansen, A and Guynn, J 2012. Influence of particle size distributions on yield stress and viscosity of cement–fly ash pastes. Cement and Concrete Research 42(2), 404-409.
Consoli, NC, Da Rocha, CG and Silvani, C 2013. Effect of curing temperature on the strength of sand, coal fly ash, and lime blends. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 26(8), 06014015.
Consoli, NC, Domingos, P, Prietto, M, Carraro, JAH and Heineck, KS 2001. Behavior of compacted soil-fly ash-carbide lime mixtures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 127(9), 774-782.
Consoli, NC, Dalla Rosa, A and Saldanha, RB 2011. Variables governing the strength of compacted soil–fly ash–lime mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 23(4), 432-440.
Consoli, NC, Da Silva, LL, Dalla Rosa, A and Masuero, JR 2013. The strength of soil–industrial by-products–lime blends. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Geotechnical Engineering 166(5), 431-440.
Nagrockiene, D and Giedrius, G 2016. Research into the properties of concrete modified with natural zeolite addition. Construction and Building Materials 113, 964-969.
Tydlitát, VT, Zákoutský, J and Černý, R 2014. Early-stage hydration heat development in blended cements containing natural zeolite studied by isothermal calorimetry. Thermochimica Acta 582, 53-58.
Chan, S and X, Ji 1999. Comparative study of the initial surface absorption and chloride diffusion of high-performance zeolite, silica fume and PFA concretes. Cement and Concrete Composites 21(4), 293-300.
Sabet, F, Libre, A and Shekarchi, M 2013. Mechanical and durability properties of self-consolidating high-performance concrete incorporating natural zeolite, silica fume and fly ash. Construction and Building Materials 44, 175-184.
Liguori, B, Iucolano, F, Gennaro, B, Marroccoli, M and Caputo, D 2015. Zeolitized tuff in environmentally friendly production of cementitious material: Chemical and mechanical characterization. Construction and Building Materials 99 272-278.
Jamhiri, B, Ebrahimi, A and Xu, Y 2020. Investigating uncertainties in the source-site and the model-input within reliability-based deterministic and probabilistic liquefaction initiation analyses. Disaster Advances 13(2), 55-62.
Rao, S, N and Rajasekaran, G 1996. Reaction products formed in lime-stabilized marine clays. Journal of geotechnical engineering 122(5), 329-336.
Al-Mukhtar, M, Lasledj, A and Alcover, J 2010. Behaviour and mineralogy changes in lime-treated expansive soil at 20 C. Applied clay science 50(2), 191-198.
Mertens, G, Snellings, R, Van Balen, K, Bicer-Simsir, B, Verlooy, P and Elsen, J 2009. Pozzolanic reactions of common natural zeolites with lime and parameters affecting their reactivity. Cement and Concrete Research 39(3), 233-240.
Thomas, J, Rothstein, D, Jennings, H and Christensen, B 2003. Effect of hydration temperature on the solubility behavior of Ca-, S-, Al-, and Si-bearing solid phases in Portland cement pastes. Cement and Concrete Research 33(12), 2037-2047.
Namikawa, T, Shota, H, Yoshiya, A and Taihei, S 2017. Failure behavior of cement-treated soil under triaxial tension conditions. Soils and Foundations 57(5), 815-827.
Nataatmadja, A and AK, Parkin 1989. Characterization of granular materials for pavements. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 26(4), 725-730.
Barton, N 1993. Physical and discrete element models of excavation and failure in jointed rock. Assessment and Prevention of Failure Phenomena in Rock Engineering, Turkish National Society for Rock Mechanics, Istanbul, Balkema, Rotterdam, 35-46.
Wang, YH and Leung, SC 2008. A particulate-scale investigation of cemented sand behavior. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 45(1), 29-44.
Zhao, B, Liu, D, Huang, T, Huang, W and Liu, W 2017. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading. Shock and Vibration 10, 1-10.
Finge, Z, Doanh, T and Dubujet, P 2006. Undrained anisotropy of Hostun RF loose sand: new experimental investigations. Canadian geotechnical journal, 43(11), 1195-1212.
Haeri, SM, Hamidi, A and Tabatabaee, N 2005. The effect of gypsum cementation on the mechanical behavior of gravely sands. Geotechnical Testing Journal 28(4), 380-390.
Hamidi, A and Haeri, SM 2008. Stiffness and deformation characteristics of a cemented gravely sand. International Journal of Civil Engineering 6(3), 159-173.
Rios, S, da Fonseca, A and Baudette, B 2014. On the shearing behaviour of an artificially cemented soil. Acta Geotechnica 9(2), 215-226.
Duda, M and Renner, J 2012. The weakening effect of water on the brittle failure strength of sandstone. Geophysical Journal International 192(3), 1091-1108.
Desrues, J, Chambon, R, Mokni, M and Mazerolle, F 1996. Void ratio evolution inside shear bands in triaxial sand specimens studied by computed tomography. Géotechnique 46(3), 529-546.
Baldino, N, Gabriele, D, Lupi, FR, Seta, L and Zinno, R 2014. Rheological behaviour of fresh cement pastes: Influence of synthetic zeolites, limestone and silica fume. Cement and Concrete Research, 63, 38-45.
Poon, CS, Lam, L, Kou, SC and Lin, ZS 1999. A study on the hydration rate of natural zeolite blended cement pastes. Construction and Building Materials 13(8), 427-432.
Ahmadi, B and Shekarchi, M 2010. Use of natural zeolite as supplementary cementitious material. Cement and Concrete Composites 32(2), 134-141.
Juenger, M and Siddique, R 2015. Recent advances in understanding the role of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. Cement and Concrete Research 78, 71-80.
Cai, Y, Shi, B, WW Ng, B and Tang, C 2006. Effect of polypropylene fibre and lime admixture on engineering properties of clayey soil. Engineering geology 87(4), 230-240.
Muntohar, AS, Widianti, A, Hartono, E and Diana, W 2013. Engineering properties of silty soil stabilized with lime and rice husk ash and reinforced with waste plastic fiber. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(9), 1260-1270.
Consoli, NC, Dalla Rosa, J, Gauer, EA, Dos Santos, VR, Moretto, RL and Corte, MB 2012. Key parameters for tensile and compressive strength of silt–lime mixtures. Géotechnique Letters 2(3), 81-85.
Consoli, NC, Festugato, L, Scapini Consoli, B and Da Silva, LL 2014. Assessing failure envelopes of soil–fly ash–lime blends. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 27(5), 04014174.
Tatsuoka, F, Sachio, M, Kenzo, O and Fujii, S 1986. Prediction of cyclic undrained strength of sand subjected to irregular loadings. Soils and Foundations 26(2), 73-90.
Wissa, Anwar, EZ and Charles C, Ladd 1965. Shear strength generation in stabilized soils. Massachusetts Inst of Tech Cambridge Soil Mechanics Div, No. RR-R65-17.
Lee, KL, Morrison, RA and Haley, SC 1969. A note on the pore pressure parameter B. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 1, 231-238.
Berge, PA, Wang, HF and Bonner, BP 1993. Pore pressure buildup coefficient in synthetic and natural sandstones. In International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences & geomechanics abstracts 30(7), 1135-1141.
Green, D and Wang, H 1986. Fluid pressure response to undrained compression in saturated sedimentary rock. Geophysics 51(4), 948-956.
Fredrich, JT. Martin, JW and Clayton, R. B 1995. Induced pore pressure response during undrained deformation of tuff and sandstone. Mechanics of Materials 20(2), 95-104.
Jongpradist, P, Youwai, S and Jaturapitakkul, C 2011. Effective void ratio for assessing the mechanical properties of cement-clay admixtures at high water content. Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering 137(6), 621-627.