Spatial Solar Energy Potential of Photovoltaic Panels Surrounded by Protected Mountain Ranges
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Department of Land Reclamation and Environmental Development, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Kraków, Poland
Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
Department of Ecology, Climatology and Air Protection, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Kraków, Poland
Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Management, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Kraków, Poland
Online publication date: 2023-01-05
Publication date: 2022-12-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2022;32(4):73-95
High growth of human population and dynamic socio-economic development have contributed to mounting demand for electric energy. Currently, electric energy is mainly generated from mined and combusted fossil fuels and by the nuclear power plants. The current geopolitical crisis forces mankind to reflect upon the search for alternative energy sources. In this paper analyses of the potential solar radiation volume for 12 months and annual total have been made and visualized on the maps. Additionally, the energy volume gained by the photovoltaic systems in a 12-month period and the annual total as well as underutilised solar radiation energy were calculated. It was found that the tested sites had a solar potential in the range from 113 kWh·m−2 to 1314 kWh·m−2. For process reasons, only 18 to 203 kWh·m−2 could be converted into electric energy, which accounts approximately for 1/5 of the total radiation. The results can be useful to show the best investment site for commercial plants and households in the mountainous area. Surplus energy output should be stored or sold to the power grid. Moreover, the energy source from photovoltaic panels in these areas is only one of the options for green energy generation.
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