Surface Morphology of a Microplastic as an Indicator of Its Microscale Degradation
More details
Hide details
The Science and Technology Park of the University of Zielona Gora, Poland
University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland
Online publication date: 2021-12-30
Publication date: 2021-12-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2021;31(4):196-213
Most of the plastic produced, being one-use plastic packaging, is finally disposed of into the environment. Several agents such as solar radiation, mechanical forces, and microbial action may enable the degradation of these plastics. The purpose of this article is to present a method for studying the properties of a surface of a microplastic particle affected by erosion at the microscale level, which occurred with the help of destructive forces associated with the impact of the sea. The results of analysis of the morphology of the tested sample of microplastic (consisting of poly(propylene)) allowed observing how it was degraded. Examining the surface of a microplastic, one can analyze a number of factors as well as determine the possible path the material has traveled until it was collected as a sample. By determining the scale of the patterns, it is possible to estimate how long the sample and other microplastics present in marine environments have been there. The use of an Atomic Force Microscope not only allows the surface of the sample to be imaged in a non-destructive manner but also enables the degree of degradation to be calculated mathematically, provided a baseline is established from which erosion can be assumed to have originated.
Galloway, TS 2015. Micro- and Nano-plastics and Human Health. Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Bergmann, M, Gutow, L, Klages, M. (eds). Springer, Cham. 343, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Oliveira, M and Almeida, M 2019. The why and how of micro(nano)plastic research. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 114, 196-201, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac....
Plastics – the Facts 2020 An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. Available online: https://www.plasticseurope.org..., (accessed on: 25-07-2021).
Geyer, R, Jambeck, JR, and Law, KL 2017. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Sci. Adv. 3, 25–29, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700782.
Waller, CL et.al 2017. Microplastics in the Antarctic marine system: An emerging area of research. Science of The Total Environment 598, 220-227, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scit....
Free, CM, Jensen, OP, Mason, SA, Eriksen, M, Williamson, NJ and Boldgiv, B 2014. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. Mar Pollut Bull. 85(1),156-163, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.06.001.
Courtene-Jones, W, Quinn, B, Gary, SF, Mogg, AOM and Narayanaswamy, BE 2017. Microplastic pollution identified in deep-sea water and ingested by benthic invertebrates in the Rockall Trough, North Atlantic Ocean. Environ Pollut. 231,271-280, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.026.
Galgani, F 2013. Marine litter within the European marine strategy framework directive. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70(6),1055–1064, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjm....
Browne, MA et.al 2011. Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines worldwide: sources and sinks. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(21), 9175–9179, doi: 10.1021/es201811s.
Shaoliang, Z et al. 2019.Microplastics in the environment: A review of analytical methods, distribution, and biological effects. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 111, 62-72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac....
Myszograj, M 2020. Microplastic in Food and Drinking Water - Environmental Monitoring Data. Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 30(4), 201-209, https://doi.org/10.2478/ceer-2....
Zhang, K et.al 2021.Understanding plastic degradation and microplastic formation in the environment: A review. Environmental Pollution 274, 116554, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116554.
Fahrenfeld, NL, Arbuckle-Keil, G, Beni, NN, Bartelt-Hunt, SL, Naderi Beni, N and Bartelt-Hunt, SL 2019. Source tracking microplastics in the freshwater environment. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 112, 248-254, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac....
Fernández-González, V, Andrade-Garda, JM, López-Mahía, P and Muniategui- Lorenzo, S 2021. Impact of weathering on the chemical identification of microplastics from usual packaging polymers in the marine environment. Analytica Chimica Acta 179-188, doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2020.11.002.
Ana, B, Silva, Ana S Bastos, Celine, IL, Justino, João, P da Costa, Armando, C. Duarte and Teresa, AP Rocha-Santos 2018. Microplastics in the environment: Challenges in analytical chemistry - A review. Analytica Chimica Acta 2018, 1017, 1-19, doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2018.02.043.
Browne, MA, Galloway, T and Thompson, R 2007. Microplastic--an emerging contaminant of potential concern? Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2007, 559–561.
Singh, B and Sharma, N 2008. Mechanistic implications of plastic degradation. Polym Degrad Stab 2008, 93, 561–584.
Hisham, AM 2016. Polypropylene as a Promising Plastic: A Review. American Journal of Polymer Science 6(1),1-11, doi: 10.5923/j.ajps.20160601.01.
Peng, L, Xin, Z, Xiaowei, W, Jinli, L, Hanyu, W and Shixiang, G 2020. Effect of weathering on environmental behavior of microplastics: Properties, sorption and potential risks. Chemosphere 242, 125193, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125193.
Brandon, J, Goldstein, M and Ohman, MD 2016. Long-term aging and degradation of microplastic particles: comparing in situ oceanic and experimental weathering patterns. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 110(1), 299-308, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.048.
Lenz, R, Enders, K, Stedmon, CA, MacKenzie, DMAA, Gissel Nielsen, T and Nielsen, TG 2015. A critical assessment of visual identification of marine microplastic using Raman spectroscopy for analysis improvement. Marine Pollution Bulletin 100(1),82-91,doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marp....
Sathish, N, Jeyasanta, I and Patterson, J 2019.Abundance, characteristics and surface degradation features of microplastics in beach sediments of five coastal areas in Tamil Nadu, India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 142,112-118, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.03.037.
Ter Halle, A, Ladirat, L, Martignac, M, Mingotaud, AF, Boyron, O and Perez E 2017.To what extent are microplastics from the open ocean weathered? Environ Pollut. 227, 167-174, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.051.
Wieczorek-Ciurowa, K, Barbasz, J and Sikora, T 2014. Mikroskopia Bliskich oddziaływań., Eds.; Politechnika Krakowska, Kraków, Poland, 2014.
Hidalgo-Ruz, V, Gutow, L, Thompson, RC and Thiel, M 2012. Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environental Science Technology 46, 3060–3075, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2031....
Lin, L et. al. 2018. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in an urban river: A case study in the Pearl River along Guangzhou City, China. Science of the Total Environment 644,375–381, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.327.
Guidelines for sampling microplastics on sandy beaches, A Rocha International, Available online: https://www.arocha.org/wp-cont.... (accessed on: 7-05-2021).
Internet Journal of Vibrational Spectroscopy – How FTIR works. Available online: https://www.mt.com/int/en/home... (accessed on: 7-05-2021).
Technika FTIR. Available online: http://mitr.p.lodz.pl/raman/FT... (accessed on: 7-05-2021).
Przewodnik po spektroskopii Raman. Available online: https://www.bruker.com/pl/prod.... (accessed on: 7-05-2021).
Pethica, JB and Oliver, WC 1987. Tip Surface Interactions in STM and AFM. Physica Scripta T19, 61-66.
Baykara, MZ and Schwarz, UD 2016. Atomic force microscopy: methods and applications. Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry. 70-75, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978....
Microscope: BioScope Catalyst, Experiment Description. User guide. Description of experiment selection in the software NanoScope 9.0.
Hummel Polymer and Additives FT-IR Spectral Library. Available online: https://www.thermofisher.com/o... (accessed on: 21-05-2021).
Hooshmand Zaferani, S 2018. Introduction of polymer-based nanocomposites. Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering, Polymer-based Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications. Jawaid, M., Mansoob, Khan M.; Woodhead Publishing 1-25, ISBN 9780081022627, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
Tosin, M, Weber, M, Siotto, M, Lott, C and Degli-Innocenti, F 2012. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology 3,225, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00225.
Xu et.al 2019. FTIR and Raman imaging for microplastics analysis: State of the art, challenges and prospects. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 119, 115629. doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2019.115629.
The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers. Surface Texture; (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay); ASME B46.1-2009; (Revision of ASME B46.1-2002). NanoScope Analysis – Help in software: Analysis Functions > Roughness > Roughness Parameters.
Stachowiak, GW and Batchelor, AW 2005. Engieering tribology. Abrasive, erosive and Cavitation Wear. Third Edition Elsevier.
Ashrafizadeh, H and Ashrafizadeh, F 2012. A numerical 3D simulation for prediction of wear caused by solid particle impact. Wear 276-277, 75-84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear....
Hejwowski, T 2013. Nowoczesne powłoki nakładane cieplnie odporne na zużycie ścierne i erozyjne. Monografie –Politechnika Lubelska, Lublin.
Wang, Z et al. 2018. Sorption behaviors of phenanthrene on the microplastics identified in a mariculture farm in Xiangshan Bay, Southeastern China. Science of the Total Environment 1617-1626, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.146.
Burrows, SD, Frustaci, S, Thomas, KV and Galloway, T 2020. Expanding exploration of dynamic microplastic surface characteristics and interactions. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 130, 115993, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac....
Selvam, S, Manisha, A, Venkatramanan, S, Chung, SY, Paramasivam, CR and Singaraja, C 2020. Microplastic presence in commercial marine sea salts: A baseline study along Tuticorin Coastal salt pan stations, Gulf of Mannar, South India. Marine Pollution Bulletin 150, 110675, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110675.
Warstwa wierzchnia. Chropowatość i falistość powierzchni. Available online: https://www.pwsz.konin.edu.pl/... (accessed on: 24-05-2021).
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top