River Park Assessment: 2D Hydraulic Watercourse Modeling for Nature-based Solutions in Urban Area
More details
Hide details
Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, Krakow, Poland
Department of Ecology, Climatology and Air Protection, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland, Poland
Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Geotechnics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland
Submission date: 2023-07-21
Final revision date: 2023-09-29
Acceptance date: 2023-10-10
Online publication date: 2023-10-30
Publication date: 2023-10-30
Corresponding author
Dawid Bedla   

Department of Ecology, Climatology and Air Protection, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland, Poland
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2023;33(2):117-134
Over time, fragmentation of semi-natural habitats in urban areas has become a pressing concern, disrupting ecological processes within cities. The focus on preserving open ecosystems has grown, highlighting the need to enhance resilience in urban riverside areas for effective ecosystem restoration. Comprehensive studies on river valleys, considering both hydrology and ecology, play a crucial role in urban river ecosystem development. Our article explores the potential of protective zones with urban vegetation and watercourses as Nature-based Solution within Krakow's ongoing riverine park system development. The study's cross-sections in the River Park area revealed dominant velocities ranging from 0.67 to 2.0 m s-1for SWQ (mean annual maximum flow) and below 0.67 m s-1for Q1% (1% annual exceedance probability flow). The hydrological analysis accurately captured the natural river bed channels' curvature, providing the basis for a two-dimensional mathematical model to visualize the hydraulic structure of protected sites. Integrating water and greenery management systems in urban areas offers significant potential for adapting to climate change, mitigating extreme weather events. Our research's novelty lies in applying 2D hydraulic modeling, demonstrating how River Parks can serve as climate change mitigation solutions in urban environments.
Chen, J, Zhou, C and Li, F 2020. Quantifying the green view indicator for assessing urban greening quality: An analysis based on Internet-crawling street view data. Ecological Indicators, 113, 106192.
Biernacka, M and Kronenberg, J 2018. Classification of institutional barriers affecting the availability, accessibility and attractiveness of urban green spaces. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 36, 22-33.
Hewitt, CN, Ashworth, K, MacKenzie, AR 2020. Using green infrastructure to improve urban air quality [GI4AQ]. Ambio, 49(1), 62-73.
Chang N, Luo G, Yuan J 2020. Study on green environment resources of urban residential areas and multidimensional impact. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(1), 2.
Colding, J, Colding, M, Barthel, S 2020. The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity? Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 47(1), 179-187.
Corner, J 2020. Landscape City: Infrastructure, Natural Systems and City‐Making. Architectural Design, 90(1), 88-93.
Dou, Y and Kuang, W 2020. A comparative analysis of urban impervious surface and green space and their dynamics among 318 different size cities in China in the past 25 years. Science of the Total Environment, 706, 135828.
Elliott, RM, Motzny, AE, Majd, S, Chavez, FJV, Laimer, D, Orlove BS, Culligan, PJ 2020. Identifying linkages between urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services using an expert opinion methodology. Ambio, 49(2), 569-583.
Ghofrani, Z, Sposito, V, Faggian, R 2017. A comprehensive review of blue-green infrastructure concepts. International Journal of Environmental Sustainability, 6(1).
Gutrich, JJ, Gigliello, K, Gardner, KV, Elmore, AJ 2016. Economic returns of groundwater management sustaining an ecosystem service of dust suppression by alkali meadow in Owens Valley, California. Ecological Economics, 121, 1-11.
Irwin, RE, Youngsteadt, E, Warren, PS 2020. The evolutionary ecology of mutualisms in urban landscapes. Urban Evolutionary Biology, 111.
Greentein, I, Keidar, O, Tziraki, C, Chinitz, D 2020. Greening our backyard’-health behavior impacts of the built environment within the overall ecology of active living. Cities & Health, 1-18.
Kadfak, A, Oskarsson, P 2020. An (Urban) Political Ecology approach to Small-Scale Fisheries in the Global South. Geoforum, 108, 237-245.
Hao, Y, Ye, B, Gao, M, Wang, Z, Chen, W, Xiao, Z, Wu, H 2020. How does ecology of finance affect financial constraints? Empirical evidence from Chinese listed energy-and pollution-intensive companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 246, 119061.
Langemeyer, J, Baró, F, Roebeling, P, Gómez-Baggethun, E 2015. Contrasting values of cultural ecosystem services in urban areas: The case of park Montjuïc in Barcelona. Ecosystem Services, 12, 178-186.
Li L, Uyttenhove, P, Vaneetvelde, V 2020. Planning green infrastructure to mitigate urban surface water flooding risk – A methodology to identify priority areas applied in the city of Ghent. Landscape and Urban Planning, 194, 103703.
Zhang, Y 2006. CCHE2D-GUI – Graphical User Interface for the CCHE2D Model User’s Manual – Version 3.0. National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering. School of Engineering, The University of Mississippi.
Yeh, K-C, Wang, S, Chen H, Liao, C-T, Jia Y, Zhang Y 2010. Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transport and Morphological Change of Upstream and Downstream Reach of Chi-Chi Weir. In Angermann L. (Ed.), Numerical Simulation – Examples and Applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics, 311-326.
Wu, W 2001. CCHE2D Sediment Transport Model version 2.1. NCCHE Technical Report. NCCHE-TR-2001-03.
Wu, W 2004. CCHE2D Depth-averaged 2-D numerical modeling of unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in open channels. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130(10), 1013-1024.
Nash, JE and Sutcliffe, JV 1970. River flow forecasting through conceptual models. Part I: A discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology, 10, 282–290.
Moriasi, DN Arnold, JG Van Liew, MW Bingner, RL Harmel, RD Veith, TL 2007. Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. Transactions of the ASABE, 50(3), 885–900.
Stessens, P Canters F, Huysmans, M Khan, AZ 2020. Urban green space qualities: An integrated approach towards GIS-based assessment reflecting user perception. Land Use Policy, 91, 104319.
Tanis, MM, Marshall, L, Biesmeijer, JK, van Kolfschoten, L 2020. Grassland management for meadow birds in the Netherlands is unfavorable to pollinators. Basic and Applied Ecology, 43, 52-63.
Hou, L Wu, F Xie, X 2020. The spatial characteristics and relationships between landscape pattern and ecosystem service value along an urban-rural gradient in Xi’an city, China. Ecological Indicators, 108, 105720.
Guo, K, Guan, M, Yu, D 2021. Urban surface water flood modeling – a comprehensive review of current models and future challenges. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 25(5), 2843-2860.
Van Appledorn, M Baker, ME Miller, AJ 2021. Empirical evaluation of two-dimensional unsteady hydraulic models for applications in floodplain forest ecology. Physical Geography, 42(2), 99-125.
Wang, Y Shen, J Yan W Chen C 2019. Backcasting approach with multi-scenario simulation for assessing effects of land use policy using GeoSOS-FLUS software. MethodsX, 6, 1384-1397.
Radecki-Pawlik, A Wieczorek, M Plesiński, K 2011. Zróżnicowanie parametrów hydrodynamicznych cieku w miejscu zdeponowania grubego rumoszu drzewnego. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Formatio Circumiectus, 10(2), 35-46.
Francipane, A Pumo, D Sinagra M La Loggia G Noto LV 2021. A paradigm of extreme rainfall pluvial floods in complex urban areas: the flood event of 15 July 2020 in Palermo (Italy). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1-32.
Kożuchowski, K Żmudzka, E 2001. Ocieplenie w Polsce: skala i rozkład sezonowy zmian temperatury powietrza w drugiej połowie XX wieku. Przegląd Geofizyczny, 46(1-2), 81-90.
Wójcik, R and Miętus M 2014. Niektóre cechy wieloletniej zmienności temperatury powietrza w Polsce (1951-2010). Przegląd Geograficzny, 86(3), 339-364.
Ziernicka-Wojtaszek A 2006. Zmienność opadów atmosferycznych na obszarze Polski w latach 1971-2000. In: Klimatyczne Aspekty Środowiska Geograficznego; Trepińska J, Olecki Z (Eds.), IGiGP UJ: Kraków, Poland, pp. 139-148.
Zhao, F Chen, L Yen, H Li, G Sun, L Yang, L 2020. An innovative modeling approach of linking land use patterns with soil antibiotic contamination in peri-urban areas. Environmental International, 134, 105327.
Xie, X Kang, H Behnisch, M Baildon, M Krüger, T 2020. To What Extent Can the Green Belts Prevent Urban Sprawl? A Comparative Study of Frankfurt am Main, London, and Seoul. Sustainability, 12(2), 679.
Xu, T Gao, J Coco, G Wang, S 2020. Urban expansion in Auckland, New Zealand: a GIS simulation via an intelligent self-adapting multiscale agent-based model. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 1-24.
de Mello Silva, C and da Silva, GBL 2020. Cumulative effect of the disconnection of impervious areas within residential lots on runoff generation and temporal patterns in a small urban area. Journal of Environmental Management, 253, 109719.
Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska, A Czepkiewicz, M Kronenberg, J 2017. Eliciting non-monetary values of formal and informal urban green spaces using public participation GIS. Landscape and Urban Planning, 160, 85-95.
Fan, Y and Fang C 2020. Evolution process analysis of urban metabolic patterns and sustainability assessment in western China: A case study of Xining city. Ecological Indicators, 109, 105784.
Richards, DR Belcher, RN 2020. Global changes in urban vegetation cover. Remote Sensing, 12(1), 23.
Wuyts, K Smets, W Lebeer, S, Samson, R 2020. Green infrastructure and atmospheric pollution shape diversity and composition of phyllosphere bacterial communities in an urban landscape. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 96(1), fiz173.
Łaszkiewicz, E Kronenberg, J Marcińczak, S 2018. Attached to or bound to a place? The impact of green space availability on residential duration: The environmental justice perspective. Ecosystem Services, 30, 309-317.
Tian, Y Liu, B Hu, Y Xu, Q Qu, M Xu, D 2020. Spatio-temporal land-use changes and the response in landscape pattern to hemeroby in a resource-based city. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(1), 20.
Meyer-Grandbastien, A Burel, F Hellier, E Bergerot, B 2020. A step towards understanding the relationship between species diversity and psychological restoration of visitors in urban green spaces using landscape heterogeneity. Landscape and Urban Planning, 195, 103728.
Mensah, CA 2014. Is Kumasi still a garden city? Land use analysis between 1980-2010. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 5(2), 89-107.
Mihankhah, T Saeedi, M Karbassi, A 2020. A comparative study of elemental pollution and health risk assessment in urban dust of different land-uses in Tehran's urban area. Chemosphere, 241, 124984.
O'Donnell, EC Lamond, JE Thorne, CR 2017. Recognizing barriers to implementation of blue-green infrastructure: A Newcastle case study. Urban Water Journal, 14(9), 964-971.
Pearsall, H Eller, JK 2020. Locating the green space paradox: A study of gentrification and public green space accessibility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Landscape and Urban Planning, 195, 103708.
Zepp, H Groß, L Inostroza, L 2020. And the winner is? Comparing urban green space provision and accessibility in eight European metropolitan areas using a spatially explicit approach. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 126603.
Nava-López, MZ Diemont, SA, Hall, M Ávila-Akerberg, V 2016. Riparian buffer zone and whole watershed influences on river water quality: Implications for ecosystem services near megacities. Environmental Processes, 3(2), 277-305.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top