Contribution to the Valorization of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Soil Stabilization
More details
Hide details
University of Mohamed Cherif Messaadia, Infrares Laboratory, Souk Ahras, Algeria
University of 20August, 1955 of Skikda, Soil and hydraulic laboratory of annaba, Algeria
Online publication date: 2021-10-01
Publication date: 2021-09-01
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 2021;31(3):134–151
The treatment of expansive soil is generally the most effective process for the stabilization of swelling clay. In this work, we will investigate the influence of the treatment of an expansive soil using granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) alone and granulated blast furnace slag activated by cement (GGBS/C) by mechanical, physical and chemical tests. The results obtained show an increased pH, an improved plasticity as well as a significant reduction in swelling potential and swelling pressure following a percentage increase in additives. In addition, a change in the adsorption of methylene blue molecules (VBs) and in the microstructure of the expansive soil is observed after treatment. Utilization of both GGBS alone and GGBS activated by cement has a significant effect on the behavior of the swelling clay but the GGBS activated by cement exhibits superior results. The use of GGBS in the stabilization of soil will have both economic and environmental benefits.
Chen, F-H 1975. Foundations on expansive soils. Elsevier, Devel Amsterdam, 279.
Malekzadeh, M and Bilsel, H 2014. Hydro-mechanical behavior of polypropylene fiber reinforced expansive soils. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 18(7),2028-2033.
Khemissa, M and Mahamedi, A 2014. Cement and lime mixture stabilization of an expansive over-consolidated clay. Applied Clay Science, 104-110.
Bouassida, E, Khemakhem, D and Haffoudhi, S 2015. Study of the shear resistance of an expansive over-consolidated clay treated with hydraulic binders (in french). Innovative Geotechnics for Africa 936(6), 978-9938.
Henry, K-S 1999. Geotextile reinforcement of low-bearing-capacity soils, comparison of two design methods applicable to thawing soils. US Amy Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), Hanover 29, 99-7.
Djouimaa, S, Sid, M and Hidjeb, M 2018. Effect of lime and cement on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. International Review of Civil Engineering (I.RE.C.E.) 9(3), 2036 – 9913.
Larsson, S, Rothhämel, M and Gunnar, J 2009. A laboratory study on strength loss in kaolin surrounding lime–cement columns. Applied Clay Science 44, 116–126.
Malekzadeh, M and Bilsel, H 2014. Hydro-mechanical behavior of polypropylene fiber reinforced expansive soils. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 18(7), 2028-2033.
Mavroulidou, M, Zhang, X, Gunn, M-J and Cabarkapa, Z 2013. Water retention and compressibility of a lime-treated, high plasticity clay. Geotech Geol Eng 31, 1171–1185.
Jawad, I-T, Taha, M-R, Majeed, Z-H and Khan, T-A 2014. Soil stabilization using lime: Advantages, disadvantages and proposing a potential alternative. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 8(4), 510-520.
Alrubaye, A-J, Muzamir, H and Fattah, M-Y 2016. Engineering properties of clayey soil stabilized with lime. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 11(4),1819-6608.
Maaitah, O-N 2012. Soil Stabilization by Chemical Agent. Geotech Geol Eng 30, 1345–1356.
Zhao, H, Ge, L, Petry, T-M and Sun,Y-Z 2014. Effects of chemical stabilizers on an expansive clay. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 18(4), 1009-1017.
Handel, N, Hafsi, B, Touati, A and Djabbar, Y 2011. Substitution of the aggregate by solid waste of blast furnace in the preparation of concrete, J.Mater. Environ. Sci 2, 520-525.
Handel, N 2019. Experimental investigation of the blast furnace slag based concretes filled in the thin walled steel stubs. International Review of Civil Engineering (I.RE.C.E.) 2, 117-124.
Izemmouren, O and Guettala, A 2014. Effect of blast furnace slag on engineering properties of compressed earth bricks based on sulphate bearing soil (in french). Ecomaterial Symposium, Montpellier, France.
Ashish, K- P, Pandey, V and Krishna Murari, J-P-S 2014. Soil stabilisation using ground granulated blast furnace slag. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 4(2), 2248-9622.
Sridevi, G and Sreerama, R 2014. Efficacy of GGBS stabilized soil cushions with and without lime in pavements. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences 9(2), 2279-0055.
Anil, K- S and Sivapullaiah, p-v 2011. Soil stabilization with waste materials based binder. Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, 15-17 December.
NF P94-051 1993. Determination of Atterberg’s limits. Liquid limit test using Casagrande apparatus. Plastic limit test on rolled thread.
NF P94-50 1995. Determination of moisture content. Oven drying method.
NF P94-056 1996. Granulometric analysis. Dry sieving method after washing.
NF P94-057 1992. Granulometric analysis. Hydrometer method.
NF P94-48 1996. Determination of the carbonate content. Calcimeter method.
NF P94-093 2014. Determination of the compaction reference values of a soil type, Standard proctor test, Modified proctor test.
NF P94-68 1998. Determination of the methylene blue value of soil or rock material by spot testing.
ASTM -4972 (1995) Standard test method for pH of soils. Annual book of ASTM Standards, vol 04.08. Easton, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.
XP P94-091 1995. Oedometer swelling test, determination of deformations by loading several test specimens.
Dayalan, J 2016. Comparative study on stabilization of soil with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) 03(05), 2198-2204.
Ouf, M.E.S 2001. Stabilization of clay subgrade soils using ground granulated blast furnace slag. Thesis School of Civil Engineering University of Leeds, UK.
Hilt, G-H and Davidson, D-T 1960. Lime fixation on clayey soil. Highway Research Board Bulletin 262, 20-32.
Mgangira, M-B 2008. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils. Journal of South African Institution of Civil Engineering 48(1), 2-7.
Cocka, E, Yazici, V and Ozaydin, V 2004. Stabilisation of expansive clays using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS), GNFS-Lime combination and GBFS Cement. Master’s Degree Thesis. Middle East Technical University.
Davidson, D-T and Handy, R-L 1960. Lime and lime applications. Highway Engineering Handboo, M.C Graw Hill, New York 23–98.
Mellal, F and Lamri, B 2010. Study of the behavior of a road embankment treated with lime in the case of the east-west motorway (in french). International Symposium on Construction in Seismic Zones, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef (Algeria) 26 – 27.
AL-Rawass, A-A, Taha, R, Nelson, J-D, AL Shab, T-B and AL Siyabi, H 2002. A comparative evaluation of various additives in the stabilization of expansive of soils. Geotech Test Journal 25(2), 199-209.
Eades, J-L and Grim, R-E 1966. A quick test to determine lime requirements for lime stabilization. Highway Research Board Bulletin 139, 61-72.
Chew, S-H, Kamruzzaman, A-H-M and Lee, F-H 2004. Physico-chemical and engineering behavior of cement treated clays. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 130(7), 696-706.
Horpibulsuk, S, Rachan, R, Chinkulkijniwat, A, Raksachon, Y and Suddeepong, A 2010. Analysis of strength development in cement-stabilized silty clay from microstructural considerations. Construction and Building Material 24, 2011-2021.